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Why and who needs to do a colonoscopy

Colonoscopy is a medical procedure for examining the colon. Translated from the Greek, this term means “inspection” of the colon.

What is a colonoscopy
Colonoscopy is a medical procedure for examining the colon. Translated from the Greek, this term means “inspection” of the colon.

In the process of research, the large intestine is examined and assessed inWhy and who needs to do a colonoscopyit is, whether there are any organ pathologies, neoplasms, inflammatory processes.

When and for what purpose is assigned a colonoscopy
Why do we need a colonoscopy? It is carried out:

if there is suspicion of an existing disease or pathology of the colon;
during the scheduled examinations of patients at risk;
as screening for early detection of colon cancer;
as a curative manipulation.
Diagnostics

Colonoscopy for diagnostic purposes is performed when the following symptoms are present:

If your stomach hurts, you need to visit a doctor.
abdominal pain;
persistent constipation, alternating constipation with diarrhea;
pain in the anus;
blood in the feces, hidden blood in the feces, found in the analysis;
bleeding from the rectum;
discharge of mucus and pus;
low hemoglobin content, the cause of which is unclear;
sharp weight loss without diets and fasting;
constantly elevated temperature;
feeling that there is a foreign body in the gut.
Planned research

Perform a colonoscopy annually:

patients with Crohn’s disease;
patients with ulcerative colitis;
those who had colon polyps;
patients who removed a malignant tumor in the intestine;
to those people whose relatives had polyps, colorectal cancer (colon cancer).
Screening

Colonoscopy is advisable to be performed regularly by a healthy person after 40–50 years for detection in the early stages of malignant tumors in the colon. The fact is that colorectal cancer often affects the elderly.

After 50 years of age, more frequent bowel research is necessary.
And, for example, according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization, a colonoscopy should be done to everyone who crossed the 55-year mark once every 10 years. But many doctors believe that the colon should be examined more often, at least once every 5 years.
Therapeutic manipulations

Colonoscopy can also be performed as a therapeutic procedure. Simultaneously with the study, the doctor can remove polyps or foreign objects, stop the bleeding, take a tissue sample to examine it.

What is revealed in the process of colonoscopy
Using this study, you can detect or exclude:

polyps and diverticula (protrusion of the mucous membrane) of the colon;
cancers at the earliest stage;
mucositis – colitis;
hemorrhoids;
bleeding ulcers and erosion;
foreign objects.
How to do a colonoscopy
For this procedure, use a colonoscope – a flexible hollow hose with a video camera.

Colonoscopy
The hose is introduced into the rectum, moving further along the length of the colon. The camera transmits an enlarged image of the intestinal walls to the monitor. Due to this, the endoscopist can examine the condition of the mucous membrane in all details: inflammation, cracks, ulcerations, diverticula, polyps and tumors.

To improve the visibility of the walls, air is introduced into the intestine.

In the hose, you can insert a tool for therapeutic manipulations.

The procedure can be painful, and now in many clinics it is done under general anesthesia or with medication sleep (anesthesia option).

The whole study lasts from 15 to 45 minutes.

How to prepare for colonoscopy
Diet

Before the study is assigned a diet. Within 3 days prior to the procedure it is forbidden to consume fatty heavy food, products that cause gas formation, milk, flour products, berries and fruits.

You need to follow a diet before colonoscopy.
What to eat before colonoscopy? You can eat boiled fish, turkey, light soups, kefir, plain yogurt, juices.

The last time you can eat 12 hours before the procedure. Then you can only drink water.

Bowel cleansing

This is a very important point. If the intestine is not completely clean, then research will fail.

Clean the intestine can be enema or laxative. There are drugs specifically designed for the colonoscopy procedure (Fortrans, lavacol).

Most often it is used laxatives.

How else can you examine the intestines
Rectoromanoscopy

This is a study of the rectum. For this procedure, a rectoromanoscope is used – a flexible or rigid (more often) tube with a lighting device.

What is the difference between colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy? The latter makes it possible to examine only part of the colon – the rectum and partially sigmoid – at a length of about 20–25 cm. Colonoscopy gives a complete picture of the colon, over a length of 2 meters.

Irrigology and irrigoscopy

This is a radiographic examination of the intestine using a contrast agent. They are performed when a colonoscopy is impossible.

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